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If only solving the Middle Eastern conflict was truly that easy.
The mid-Jurassic marked the beginning of a 160-million-year that produced , and they finally ended in the . The anoxia of post-Triassic Mesozoic oceans seems to be at least partly the result , combined with warm, stagnant, stratified surface waters. Low atmospheric oxygen, combined with high nutrient runoff and warm waters that , provided the conditions for those anoxic events, and atmospheric oxygen levels only increased toward modern levels in the Cretaceous. Also, changing currents (including , which usually brings nutrients to the surface) and rising sea levels (which can make the seafloor anoxic) may have contributed to the unprecedented and never reproduced anoxia of those times. Until the , anoxic events, and hence oil formation, have not occurred much during the past 30 million years.
After the mid-Permian extinction, marine life recovered and there were many radiations to fill empty niches, but coral reefs did not recover. Between the two big extinction events, extinction levels were highly elevated, which suggests that some of those aforementioned dynamics were still wreaking havoc, with possible . Critics of extinction hypotheses often say: “Correlation is not necessarily causation.” While there can be great merit to that position, it seems to be overused by various critics. When the guns are as smoking as volcanic events were, and they often “correlate” with mass extinctions, they are increasingly hard to deny as being at least immediately causative.
“Water, war, and peace in the Middle East
A mass extinction began when humans left Africa and with ancestors of , but it accelerated when that founder group of behaviorally modern humans . They quickly drove the , as well as the and . Once the inhabitable continents were filled with that founder group’s descendants, , humans independently domesticated plants and animals. The mass extinction continued with the Domestication Revolution, but in less spectacular fashion, usually via habitat destruction. The increasing density of human populations became the primary factor in driving other species to extinction, which were often local extinctions. Ancient and particularly drove north-African megafauna to extinction, but there were few other notable mass extinctions until . When they did, the greatest proportional demographic catastrophes since the extinction of all other human species began. Those same three continents earlier robbed of their megafauna were quickly shorn of their human populations, who were and and in the Americas. In the midst of that unprecedented disaster for , . Although industrialization raised the human standard of living as never before, as the energy of hydrocarbon fuels was exploited on a large scale for the first time, it also enabled greater environmental devastation. Humanity has been turning forests into deserts since the first civilizations (, , , , , , , , , ), and the only reason it has not gotten worse during the industrial era, at least in industrialized, nations, is because hydrocarbons instead of wood were burned. The extinction of the , in the midst of , were indicative of the vast damage that industrialized peoples could inflict on Earth’s ecosystems. Industrialization also accelerated Europe’s conquest of the world. It conquered and subjugated and peoples, reducing them to effective slavery and further devastating the ecosystems.
Rockefeller became a robber baron extraordinaire with the rise of oil in transportation. In the USA in 2011, more than 90% of all transportation energy was provided by oil, and the proportion is about the same for global industrial transportation. In the West, nearly all coal is used to produce electricity. A watershed event in oil’s use in transportation was when Winston Churchill, after in 1911, . The UK did not have domestic sources of oil as the USA did, and thus began the West’s domination of the oil-rich Middle East, which continues into the 21st century. By 1920, against the peoples of what became Iraq, as the UK secured the region for oil interests, and before World War II was over, Churchill called for the complete genocide of the Japanese people, , , and his , . His , but he is primarily remembered in the West as the great statesman who stood up to Hitler. Similarly, , the historical figure that and whose , is for .
Water Insecurity in the Middle East: ..
The climate of the Middle East ranges from the warm summers and cold winters of highland Turkey and Iran, through hotter summers and cool winters of northern Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean coast, to the extreme temperatures of the Arabian desert. Most, but not all, of the region is arid.
This conflict is not nearly as complicated to solve as they present it in the mainstream media and the think thanks/analyses world of "Middle East affairs" that exist worldwide.
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History: Middle East essay, term papers, research paper
As this narrative shows, the North American extinctions came relatively late in the process, but they have been by far the most controversial. The reasons for that appear to be several. One is that North America is the home of history’s richest and most powerful nation, and when Martin first published his proposal, the USA was in the midst of a cultural awakening (as well as ), and the awesome crimes that Europeans committed against indigenous Americans were brought to widespread public awareness for the first time. American Indian activist dismissed the idea of overkill, and until his death he attributed the extinctions to catastrophic celestial events. He was a follower of work. The idea that American Indians hunted North American mammoths to extinction also conflicted with the then prominent “peaceful savage” and “ecological Indian” themes, so the denial partly reflected political bias.
Dec 09, 2002 · History: Middle East essay ..
The genetic testing that has been performed on humanity in the past generation has shown that the founder group’s pattern of migration was to continually spread out, and once the original settlement covered the continents, people did not move much at all, at least until Europe began conquering the world (and there were some ). There is little sign of warfare in those early days of migration, and the leading hypothesis is that people moved to the next valley rather than be close enough to fight each other. Any conflict would have been easily resolved by moving farther out, where more easily killed animals lived. Also, in those virgin continents, people need not have roamed far to obtain food. Today, an !Kung woman will carry her child more than 7,000 kilometers before the child can walk for himself/herself. If an !Kung woman bears twins, it is her duty to pick which child to murder, because she cannot afford to carry two. That demonstrates the limitations of today’s hunter-gatherer lifestyle, but in those halcyonic days of invading virgin continents (which had to be the Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer), those kinds of practices probably waned and bands grew fast. When they they split, and the new group moved to new lands where the animals, again, never saw people before. Unlike the case with humans, there would not have been a grapevine so that animals told their neighbors about the new super-predator. The first time that those megafauna saw humans was probably their last time. It is very likely, just as with all predators for all time, and as can be seen with historical hunting events such or , that those bands soon took to killing animals, harvesting the best parts, and moving on. To them it would not have been a “blitzkrieg,” but more like kids in candy stores. After a few thousand years of grabbing meat whenever the fancy took them, or perhaps less, those halcyonic days were over as the far coasts of Australia were reached and the easy meat was gone. When that land bridge formed to Tasmania about 43 kya, people crossed and were able to , until all the megafauna was gone on Tasmania. They also may have worked their way through the food chain, in which the first kills were the true mother lode. Nobody even deigned to raise a spear at anything less than a until they were gone. Then they started killing smaller prey, which eventually did wise up and were harder to kill, so humans had to work at it again and the brief golden age was over. The as they shaped the new continent to their liking, maybe recreating the savanna conditions that they left in Africa, may have also been used to flush out animals if they began to avoid humans.
RELATIONSHIP WITH RESPECT TO RESOLVING CONFLICT IN THE MIDDLE EAST
To revisit the Neanderthal split from about 500 kya, stayed in West Asia and Africa. When evidence of came to light, some scientists placed the beginning of the at about 500 kya. Stone tools have recently been dated using , which works for stone tools heated by fires, and using . That method measures water absorption into the surface of obsidian tools. For dating artifacts before the appearance of behaviorally modern humans about 70-50 kya, will not work, but successful. Neanderthals dominated Europe and today’s Middle East while home was Africa, and they also ranged to Europe and West Asia. Whether existed for only a half-million years or a million is controversial today, but what is not very controversial is that it is probably the direct ancestor of both Neanderthals and , and the first members of our species appeared in Africa about 200 kya. There is evidence that other descendants of may have existed, and . It also could have been a Neanderthal descendant. As with the discovery of the “” of Flores Island, it will not be surprising if scientists find more species that branched off of those early human and protohuman lines and died out when behaviorally modern humans spread across Africa and Eurasia.
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