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An essay or paper on The Importance of Water Resources

This essay presents a , and nearly half of the events happened during the timeframe covered by this essay's first half, which includes almost the entirety of Earth's history. Humanity's tenure amounts to a tiny sliver of Earth's history, and surveying pre-human events was partly intended to help readers develop a sense of perspective. We are merely Earth's latest tenants. We have unprecedented dominance, but we are quickly destroying Earth's ability to host complex life. As my astronaut colleague openly wondered, is ? Is our path of destruction inevitable, as we plunder one energy resource after another to exhaustion? Will depleting Earth's hydrocarbons be the latest, greatest, and perhaps final instance?

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The Cambrian’s global ocean contained far less oxygen than today’s. Being newly and probably inconsistently oxygenated by oceanic currents was only part of the problem. The Cambrian oceans were warmer than today’s oceans, perhaps far warmer, such as 40o C and higher for the . Water’s ability to absorb oxygen declines as it gets warmer. Water heated from 10o C to 40o C will lose 40% of its ability to absorb oxygen. The phenomenon of warmer water absorbing less oxygen contributed to many instances of anoxic waters during the eon of complex life, and particularly in the warmer, earlier periods.

Life Under The Water Essay: Alumni FAQ

The Cambrian Explosion’s iconic animal was the . As a child, I read every paleontology text in my elementary school’s library, and I have fond memories of imagining trilobite lives. Was there love among the trilobites? Among the protists? The bacteria? To a scientist, those questions might be unanswerable and even meaningless, but a mystic might pursue them. I will not wax too mystically in this essay (I do it ), but that may well be the big question of life on Earth and . The nature of consciousness and love in the Cambrian, or the lack thereof, as much as it may always be a mystery, does not invalidate life’s arc through the evolutionary process; it only challenges materialism.

But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)

Sample Narrative Essay: Underwater World Adventures | HubPages

show that some animals were mobile before the Cambrian Explosion. Sponges were probably the but they were immobile except for their flagella drawing water through them, which carried food and oxygen in and waste out. The first creatures that we would recognize as animals were probably worms crawling atop ocean sediments. As lowly as the worm might seem, it would have needed muscles, bilateral symmetry, a circulatory and digestive/excretory system, and a nervous system run by a brain; that distant ancestor probably possessed . Some early worms may have even had rudimentary eyes. And of possibly eonic importance, worms probably made the first poop. The evolution of may have been a seminal event in the organic carbon burial process. Sponges may have also been largely responsible for initially removing oceanic carbon, which helped increase atmospheric oxygen and helped ventilate the oceans. Until then, organic carbon from dead life forms would not have settled to the ocean floor, but would have floated in the water column and been recycled by other life forms. Although the hypothesis , feces sinking to the ocean floor may have been how life’s burial of carbon began, as well as robbing sulfate-reducing bacteria in the water column of their nutrients and thus enabling oceanic waters to remain oxygenated. Ediacaran fauna did not burrow into ocean sediments, but deep burrowing was characteristic of Cambrian sediments. There is debate today whether Cambrian burrowing was a of oxygenating the ocean floor.

As will be explored in this essay, all of the marine life have anoxia as a suspected contributing cause, so oxygen is a major area of interest among extinction specialists. Whether oxygen levels were also significant contributing causes of evolutionary innovation is another area of interest today. Again, to food chains. Even if the first animals did not respire anaerobically, they adapted to aerobic respiration early on and then became dependent on it. There would be no going back for animals; all except those few adapted to and anoxic environments went “all in” with aerobic respiration.

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Sample Narrative Essay: Underwater World Adventures

During the Cambrian Explosion, an ecosystem developed in which life on the sea floor, surface, and water column all interacted for the first time. All but one of were energy dynamics, as the environment provided either too much or too little energy, and the nutrient hypothesis () will be revisited numerous times in this essay. A lack of nutrients, mineral and otherwise, always meant that the energy-driven dynamics that delivered the nutrients were curtailed. If enough energy is properly applied, all nutrients can be abundant.

Life under sea water essay - Halogenerators

The Cambrian Explosion had several phases to it, with explosions of life and mass extinctions, and a general atmospheric oxygen rise accompanied it. Anoxic conditions coincided with extinctions. would not be that affected by what complex life was doing (although anaerobes were generally driven underground and into the seafloor), but the rise of complex life led to new ecosystems. Before the rise of animals, the seafloor was smooth and “stiff,” but burrowing animals had profound impact on seafloor ecosystems and may have played a prominent role in creating the ecosystems themselves. Corals created new ecosystems, as life terraformed Earth.

Water is life essay – Arterra Bizimodu

Mass extinction events may be the result of multiple ecosystem stresses that reach the level where the ecosystem unravels. Other than the meteor impact that destroyed the dinosaurs, the rest of the mass extinctions seem to have multiple contributing causes, and each one ultimately had an energy impact on life processes. The processes can be complex and scientists are only beginning to understand them. This essay will survey mass extinction events and their aftermaths in some detail, as they were critical junctures in the journey of life on Earth.

Creative Writing: My Life as a Fish :: Creative Writing Essay

Land colonization was perhaps the Devonian’s most interesting event. The adaptations invented by aquatic life to survive in terrestrial environments were many and varied. Most importantly, the organism would no longer be surrounded by water and had to manage . Nutrient acquisition and reproductive practices would have to change, and the protection that water provided from was gone; plants and animals devised methods to protect themselves from the Sun’s radiation. Also, moving on land and in the air became major bioengineering projects for animals. Breathing air instead of water presented challenges. The pioneers who left water led both aquatic and terrestrial existences. Amphibians had both , and arthropods, whose exoskeletons readily solved the desiccation and structural support problems, evolved to replace their gills, which were probably book gills.

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