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Thomas Hardy was a novelist and a poet.

"And here may be the best place to note after Dr Phelps that the 'whole atmosphere of Collins's Ode is similar to that of the Elegy. Cf. especially stanza 10,

''And hamlets brown, and dim-discovered spires,
And hears their simple bell, and marks o'er all
Thy dewy fingers draw
The gradual dusky veil.'' '
Dr Phelps notes also that Joseph Warton's verses contain some of Gray's pictures, and something of the same train of thought: e.g.:
''Hail, meek-eyed maiden, clad in sober grey,
Whose soft approach the weary woodman loves,
As homeward bent to kiss his prattling babes
Jocund he whistles through the twilight groves.''
add:
''Now every Passion sleeps; desponding Love,
And pining Envy, ever-restless Pride;
A holy calm creeps o'er my peaceful soul,
Anger and mad Ambition's storms subside.''
The latter stanza might well be the form in embryo of the four rejected stanzas quoted infra, n. on . Dr Phelps remarks that ''the scenery as well as the meditations of the Elegy were by no means original: they simply established more firmly literary fashions which were already becoming familiar.''
And certainly if the opening stanzas of the Elegy as we now have them were written as early as 1742, their composition was in no way affected by the poems of Warton and Collins; the same must be said even if the 'autumnal verses' of the letter of Sept. 11, 1746, were the Elegy. The spirit of gentle melancholy was in the air; and in 1746 and 1747 found in three young poets, Collins, Joseph Warton and Thomas Warton, that voice to the world at large which is found again in Gray in 1750. For in 1747 Thomas Warton published anonymously these lines, which he had written in his 17th year (1745):
''Beneath yon ruin'd abbey's moss-grown pile
Oft let me sit, at twilight hour of eve
Where thro' some western window the pale moon
Pours her long-levell'd rule of streaming light;
While sullen sacred silence reigns around,
Save the lone screech-owl's note, who builds his bow'r
Amid the mould'ring caverns dark and damp,
Or the calm breeze, that rustles in the leaves
Of flaunting ivy, that with mantle green
Invests some wasted tow'r:
''
where resemblance to the Elegy is closest of all.
Between these three poets communication of ideas was probable; but at this date even Thomas Warton, with whom he afterwards corresponded, was an absolute stranger to Gray. And Gray is so far from feeling that in any of these there were 'kindred spirits' who might 'enquire his fate' that he writes, Dec. 27, 1746:
'Have you seen the Works of two young Authors, a Mr Warton and a Mr Collins, both Writers of Odes? it is odd enough, but each is the half of a considerable Man, and one the counterpart of the other. The first has but little invention, very poetical choice of Expression, and a good Ear, the second a fine fancy, model'd upon the Antique, a bad Ear, great variety of Words, and Images with no choice at all. They both deserve to last some Years, but will not.'
So little are men conscious of that 'stream of tendency' on which they themselves are borne."

The novels and short stories of Thomas Hardy formed the context of the study....

Margaret Drabble, editor and novelist, cites the novel as "the first of Thomas Hardy's great novels, and the first to sound the tragic note for which his fiction is best remembered" (Hardy xiii).

“The Workbox” by Thomas Hardy Essay Sample

The way Thomas Hardy expresses the differences between males and females in Tess of the D’Urbervilles shows the unbalances in the novel.

"Cf. Pope, Temple of Fame, ll. 73, 74:

''Heroes in animated marble frown,
And legislators seem to think in stone.''
But the original both for Gray and Pope is Virgil, Aen. vi. 848, 849:
''Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera,
Credo equidem; vivos ducent de marmore vultus.''
'Others shall beat out the breathing bronze to softer lines; I believe it well; shall draw living lineaments from the marble.' (Mackail.)
Cf. Georg. III. 34:
''Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa.''
['There too shall stand breathing images in Parian stone.' Id.]
The expression is rescued from the charge of imitation or conventionalism by the thought which it is made to serve, that all the skill of the artist in simulating the breath of life cannot bring it 'back to its mansion.' "

"For the allusions to Hampden (1594-1643), Milton (1608-1674), and Cromwell (1599-1658), the student should refer to a History.
Instead of these three names there are, in the Original MS., Cato, Tully, and Caesar; but the change to well-known characters of our own country has added to the vividness as well as fixed the nationality of a poem that has been translated into so many languages.
It is noteworthy that both Hampden and Milton lived in Buckinghamshire - the county in which is the Stoke-Poges Churchyard. Hampden was M.P. for Buckingham, and it was as a resident of that county that he refused to pay ship money. Chalfont, in which is the cottage where Milton finished ''Paradise Lost,'' is only a few miles from the ''Churchyard'' of the ''Elegy.''
Mitford quotes the following from Plautus as the thought in brief of this stanza and lines : - ''Ut saepe summa ingenia in occulto latent, / Hic qualis imperator, nunc privatus est.'' - Captiv. iv. 2."

Thomas hardy neutral tones poem analysis essays

This is a tragic victorian novel, in which Thomas Hardy has shown how fate, chance, and coincidence can affect a life and how much things can change.

"G[ray]. wrote to Walpole, 3 March 1751 (Corresp i 344): 'I humbly propose, for the benefit of Mr. Dodsley and his matrons, that take awake for a verb, that they should read asleep, and all will be right.' If G. was referring to the comma which appeared after 'Awake', the fault was his own (see his letter to Walpole of 11 Feb. above). It was removed in ed 3.
In 1768 G. acknowledged as the source of this line Petrarch's Sonnet 169 (more usually numbered 170), which he himself had earlier translated into Latin (see p. 309): Ch'i veggio nel pensier, dolce mio fuoco, / Fredda una lingua, & due begli occhi chiusi / Rimaner doppa noi pien di faville (For I see in my thoughts, my sweet fire, one cold tongue and two beautiful closed eyes will remain full of sparks after our death). But there are other parallels with G.'s image and thought: e.g. Lucretius iv 925-6: Quippe ubi nulla latens animai pars remaneret / in membris, cinere ut multa latet obrutus ignis (Since, if no part of the spirit were left hidden in the limbs, like fire covered in a heap of ashes); Ovid, Tristia III iii 81-4: Tu tamen extincto feralia munera semper / deque tuis lacrimis umida serta dato. / quamvis in cineres corpus mutaverit ignis, / sentiet officium maesta favilla pium (Yet do you ever give to the dead the funeral offerings and garlands moist with your own tears. Although the fire change my body to ashes, the sorrowing dust shall feel the pious care); Propertius, Elegies II xiii 42: Non nihil ad verum conscia terra sapit (Not at all unconscious and witless of the truth are the ashes of man: i.e. of the way his memory is regarded after death); Ausonius, Parentalia, Praefatio 11-12: Gaudent compositi cineres sua nomina dici: / frontibus hoc scriptis et monumenta iubent (Our dead ones laid to rest rejoice to hear their names: and thus even the lettered stones above their graves would have us do). Arthur Johnston, Selected Poems of Gray and Collins (1967) p. 46, cites the translation of Euripides, Bacchae 8, in the life of Solon in Plutarch's Lives (1683) vol i: 'Still in their embers living the strong fire'. See also Young, Night Thoughts i 105-7: 'Why wanders wretched Thought their tombs around, / In infidel Distress? Are Angels there? / Slumbers, rak'd up in dust, Etherial fire?' The version of the line which appeared in edd 1-7 echoes Pope, Eloisa to Abelard 54: 'Warm from the soul, and faithful to its fires'."

"Gray himself quotes here in illustration:

''Ch'i veggio nel pensier, dolce mio fuoco,
Fredda una lingua, e due begli occhi chiusi
Rimaner dopo noi pien di faville.''
Petrarch, Son. CLXIX. CLI.
He had already, I believe, made the translation of this sonnet, which is preserved among his Latin poems; perhaps even the turn which he has given to it in the lines
''Nos duo cumque erimus parvus uterque cinis,''
and
''Ardebitque urna multa favilla mea,''
may have set him on embodying in this place of the Elegy the passage quoted. Petrarch's words serve Gray's purpose best if severed from their context. In this sonnet the poet plays with the image of flame. He is burning; all believe this, save her whom alone he wishes to believe it; his ardour, of which she makes no account, and the glory he has given her in his rhyme, may yet inflame a thousand others:
''For in my thought I see, - sweet fire of mine!---
A tongue though chilled, and two fair eyes, though sealed,
Fraught with immortal sparks, survive us still.''
Mitford quotes Chaucer, Cant. Tales, Reeve's prologue (3880):
''Yet in our ashen cold is fire yreken.''
But the Reeve is speaking of the passions of youth surviving in old age."

Introduction : Thomas Hardy is regarded a major contributor to English novel , born in rural Dorchester ....
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Thomas Hardy Essays - Essay Expert in Singapore

"These lines on unfulfilled greatness among the villagers have been compared to Dryden, Annus Mirabilis 849-54: 'As when some dire Usurper Heav'n provides, / To scourge his Country with a lawless sway: / His birth, perhaps, some petty Village hides, / And sets his Cradle out of Fortune's way: // Till fully ripe his swelling fate breaks out, / And hurries him to mighty mischief on'; and Shenstone, The Schoolmistress (1745) st. xxvii-xxix, in which 'The firm fixed breast which fit and right requires, / Like Vernon's patriot soul', a potential Milton, and other great men are seen in embryo among the schoolchildren. Thomson's panegyric of England's 'sons of glory' in Summer 1488-91, 1493, includes: 'a steady More, / Who, with a generous though mistaken zeal, / Withstood a brutal tyrant's useful rage; / Like Cato firm ... / A dauntless soul erect, who smiled on death.' Thomson goes on to mention in this passage (not expanded to this form until 1744) Hampden, l. 1515: 'Wise, strenuous, firm, of unsubmitting soul'; and Milton, ll. 1567-71. As is shown below, G[ray].'s instances of greatness were originally classical in the Eton MS. The alteration to Hampden, Milton and Cromwell corresponds to the fact that the continuation of the poem after the original ending is markedly less classical and more English in character. But G. also wanted examples of greatness which had proved dangerous to society (as opposed to the innocence of the villagers) and the Civil War, 100 years earlier, provided him with three convenient examples. For all their individual qualities, these three men had been responsible in one way or another for bringing turmoil to their country. Without assenting to the identification of the churchyard with Stoke Poges, it is possible to accept Tovey's suggestion that G. may also have been influenced to some extent by the Buckinghamshire connections of Milton, who spent several early years at Horton, and Hampden, whose family home was at Great Hampden, where he was often visited by Cromwell."

''The Mayor of Casterbridge'' by Thomas Hardy Essay …

"For the allusions to Hampden (1594-1643), Milton (1608-1674), and Cromwell (1599-1658), the student should refer to a History.
Instead of these three names there are, in the Original MS., Cato, Tully, and Caesar; but the change to well-known characters of our own country has added to the vividness as well as fixed the nationality of a poem that has been translated into so many languages.
It is noteworthy that both Hampden and Milton lived in Buckinghamshire - the county in which is the Stoke-Poges Churchyard. Hampden was M.P. for Buckingham, and it was as a resident of that county that he refused to pay ship money. Chalfont, in which is the cottage where Milton finished ''Paradise Lost,'' is only a few miles from the ''Churchyard'' of the ''Elegy.''
Mitford quotes the following from Plautus as the thought in brief of this stanza and lines : - ''Ut saepe summa ingenia in occulto latent, / Hic qualis imperator, nunc privatus est.'' - Captiv. iv. 2."

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