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The social changes that have swept the world over the past decade have intensified this sense of pessimism. The end of the Cold War, the collapse of the left, the fragmentation of the postwar order, the defeat of most liberation movements in the third world and the demise of social movements in the West, have all transformed political consciousness. In particular, they have thrown into question the possibility of social transformation. In this context the quest for equality has increasingly been abandoned in favour of the claim to a diverse society. I suggested previously that the narrative of race was also the narrative of the containment of movements for social emancipation. Much the same may be said about pluralism. The celebration of difference is an intellectual outlook that has been forged out of the seeming impossibility of transforming social relations. It is the product of political defeat, and in particular the product of the defeat of movements for social equality. But the very pursuit of pluralism has itself helped constrain the possibilities of social change, for, in the absence of a universalistic outlook, and in an increasingly fragmented world, the promise of any form of collective action becomes increasingly chimerical. Unless we challenge the blind pursuit of difference, our capacity for meaningful social change will continue to become ever more diminished.

Futures of Racism - Diversity & Equity Education …

A closer comparison of Locke's essays reveals a synergy between the two. "For Locke, cultural pluralism and cultural relativism," Ernest Mason claims, "both have their foundation in the Bahá'í principle of unity in diversity." In demonstrating a thematic simultaneity in Locke's religious and philosophical writings, Mason declares: "In the following examination of Locke's social philosophy I hope to demonstrate fully that Locke was, theoretically and practically, concerned with the very social issues stressed in the Bahá'í Faith: justice, equality, nonviolence, tolerance, and racial and ideological peace." Mason was not alone in making this assertion. Kenneth Stikkers observes:

Free cultural difference Essays and Papers - 123helpme

Free cultural difference papers, essays, and research papers.

More generally, what epistemological assumptions underlie (or should underlie) the notion of critical thinking? Does critical thinking presuppose conceptions of truth, knowledge, or justification that are objective and universal, or is it compatible with more relativistic accounts emphasizing culture, race, class, gender, or conceptual framework?Philosophers of education and educational theorists also argue whether critical thinking is relevantly 'neutral" with respect to the groups who use it, or if it is in fact politically or culturally biased. Do standard accounts of or courses in critical thinking favor and help to perpetuate the beliefs, values, and practices of dominant groups in society and devalue those of marginalized or oppressed groups?Other issues concern whether the skills, abilities, and dispositions that are constitutive of critical thinking are general or subject-specific.

. Carol Baxter, Editor. 2001.
Nurses need to breaks down barriers and deliver quality care regardless of gender, race, disability, sexual orientation and age. Moreover, health services need to continue to develop a diverse workforce to deliver this care. This book tackles these issues head on and provides both a theoretical framework and extensive practical guidance in this vital task. (Legal references are to British law.)

Ethical Relativism - University at Buffalo

Moral Relativism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Edited by Kevin M. Takakuwa, Nick Rubashkin, and Karen E. Herzig. 2004.
This books looks at medical education through the eyes of a diverse collection of students who challenge many of our assumptions about how medicine is taught and practiced. The essays ask us to think about how we measure and treat such differences as race, socioeconomic status, and even weight as part of the identity of the physician – and how a larger, unspoken professional identity has often marginalized many of its members or even excluded a greater richness from its membership.

We have seen how the concept of a plural society developed in the prewar years out of anthropological studies of colonial society. In the postwar world it became refashioned in response to the impact of mass immigration into Western societies. Eleven million workers came to Europe in the fifties and sixties, encouraged by an economic boom. In the USA a different kind of mass migration took place - the huge movement of African Americans to the Northern cities in the fifties and sixties. In both cases the newcomers found themselves on the margins of society, subject to racism and discrimination, and unable to gain access to levers of power. The ideology of pluralism developed as an accommodation to the persistence of inequalities despite the rhetoric of integration, assimilation and equality. As immigrant and black communities remained ghettoised, excluded from mainstream society, subject to discrimination and clinging to old habits and lifestyles as a familiar anchor in a hostile world, so such differences became rationalised not as the negative product of racism or discrimination but as the positive result of a plural society. In the nineteenth century, the persistence of inequalities had led to the emergence of the discourse of race, in which economic, social and technological differences between groups were attributed to natural distinctions. In the postwar years the persistence of inequalities in the context of mass immigration led to the development of a pluralist outlook, in which differences were welcomed as expressions of cultural diversity.

The Culture of Medicine and Racial ..
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My Cultural Identity Free Essays - StudyMode

In my own reading, there is a progression in Locke's social philosophy in which tolerance leads to reciprocity which, in turn, culminates in "unity in diversity." Locke describes his own universalism as a "fluid and functional unity that begins in a basic progression of value pluralism, converts itself to value relativism, and then passes over into a ready and willing admission of both cultural relativism and pluralism." Locke's hierarchy of loyalty, tolerance, reciprocity, and cultural relativism and pluralism (the philosophical equivalent of "unity in diversity") was a pragmatic application of quintessentially Bahá'í values. In its practical application, this hierarchy is formulaic:

Cultural Relativism Essay | Bartleby

"Loyalty" expresses group solidarity. Loyalty is related to the idea of tolerance. Loyalty is love of one's own race, ethnicity, culture. The concept of loyalty is connected with the notion of community. "Indeed," as Stikkers corroborates, "it was Royce's theories of loyalty and community and Locke's experience in the Bahá'í faith [·] that provided the main intellectual influences on Locke's pluralism." As mentioned, Josiah Royce was one of Locke's professors in Harvard's philosophy department. Locke's attraction to Royce's ideas owes a great deal to the fact that Royce was "the only major American philosopher during the early 1900s to publish a book condemning racism." Locke's cultural relativism was grounded in Royce's social ethic of "loyalty to loyalty," which values a people's loyalty to their own particular culture and value system, so long as respect is maintained for broadly humane values as well.

Arguments in Favor of Conventional Ethical Relativism

It is clear that Locke wanted to make a contribution to world peace as well. If intellectuals were inspired with the same vision and could agree on a common paradigm, their leadership had the potential to further that aim. In his essay, "Cultural Relativism and Ideological Peace," Locke states: "Cultural relativism may become an important source for ideological peace" and, indeed, may serve "as a possible ideological peacemaker." "Cultural relativism" Locke believed, "can become a very constructive philosophy by way of integrating values and value systems." "In looking for cultural agreements on a world scale," Locke further explained, "we shall probably have to content ourselves with agreement of the common-denominator type and with `unity in diversity' discovered in the search for unities of a functional rather than a content character, and therefore of a pragmatic rather than an ideological sort." In other words, Locke has proposed a formula for promoting cultural relativism as a "realistic instrument of social reorientation and cultural enlightenment."

the same category with racism, ..

Kevin Takakuwa, et. al., Editors. 2004.
This books looks at medical education through the eyes of a diverse collection of students who challenge many of our assumptions about how medicine is taught and practiced. The essays ask us to think about how we measure and treat such differences as race, socioeconomic status, and even weight as part of the identity of the physician – and how a larger, unspoken professional identity has often marginalized many of its members or even excluded a greater richness from its membership.

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