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The Social Psychology of Health: Essays and Readings by
Kendler (1999) rejects positive approaches to psychology and concludes that a negative conceptualization of mental health is necessary to serve the needs of society and meet the demands of science.
"Given the inescapability of such cultural values and assumptions, we recommend giving up our pretensions to value–neutrality, instead adopting an approach that Bellah and his colleagues have termed or (Bellah et al., 1985; Haan, Bellah, Rabinow, & Sullivan, 1983)From this perspective, positive psychology, like the social sciences more broadly, would be acknowledged to be 'a tradition, or set of traditions, deeply rooted in the philosophical and humanistic (and, to more than a small extent, the religious) history of the West' (Bellah et al., 1985, p. 301)" (Christopher & Campbell, 2008, pps. 691–692).
The Social Psychology Of Health Essays And Readings
Aspinwall, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2010). The value of positive psychology for health psychology: progress and pitfalls in examining the relation of positive phenomena to health. , (1), 4–15. doi:10.1007/s12160–009–9153–0. The growth of the "positive psychology" movement reflects increased scientific and lay interest in the relation of positive phenomena to mental and physical health and the corresponding potential for interventions that promote positive feelings, thoughts, and experiences to improve health and well–being. In this article, we (1) consider research on optimism, sense of coherence, and posttraumatic growth that predates the contemporary emphasis on positive psychology, but has clear and increasingly well–supported connections to health psychology, (2) examine several potential mechanisms through which such positive phenomena may influence the etiology, progression, and management of illness, (3) identify four pervasive but misleading assumptions about positive phenomena that may limit both scientific research and practical application, and (4) caution against serious pitfalls of popular views of positive thinking, such as its promotion as a cure for cancer and other diseases. We conclude with recommendations for the balanced scientific investigation and application of positive phenomena.
Azar, B. (2011). Positive psychology advances, with growing pains. (4), 32–36. This article discusses how positive psychology is moving ahead fast and is finding its way into therapy, schools, businesses, and even the Army. The article illuminates on how some might feel that this branch of psychology is moving too fast. The article concludes with the future of the field of positive psychology hangs in the balance of what the research shows.
Social Psychology of Health Essays & Readings: William …
Lyubomirsky, S. (2001). Why are some people happier than others? The role of cognitive and motivational processes in well–being [Special issue]. , (3), 239–249. doi:10.1037//0003–066X.56.3.239. Addressing the question of why some people are happier than others is important for both theoretical and practical reasons and should be a central goal of a comprehensive positive psychology. Following a construal theory of happiness, the author proposes that multiple cognitive and motivational processes moderate the impact of the objective environment on well–being. Thus, to understand why some people are happier than others, one must understand the cognitive and motivational processes that serve to maintain, and even enhance, enduring happiness and transient mood. The author's approach has been to explore hedonically relevant psychological processes, such as social comparison, dissonance reduction, self–reflection, self–evaluation, and person perception, in chronically happy and unhappy individuals. In support of a construal framework, self–rated happy and unhappy people have been shown to differ systematically in the particular cognitive and motivational strategies they use. Promising research directions for positive psychology in pursuit of the sources of happiness, as well as the implications of the construal approach for prescriptions for enhancing well–being, are discussed.
Leu, J., Wang, J., & Koo, K. (2011). Are positive emotions just as "positive" across cultures? . doi:10.1037/a0021332. Whereas positive emotions and feeling unequivocally good may be at the heart of well–being among Westerners, positive emotions often carry negative associations within many Asian cultures. Based on a review of East–West cultural differences in dialectical emotions, or co–occurring positive and negative feelings, we predicted culture to influence the association between positive emotions and depression, but not the association between negative emotions and depression. As predicted, in a survey of over 600 European–, immigrant Asian–, and Asian American college students, positive emotions were associated with depression symptoms among European Americans and Asian Americans, but not immigrant Asians. Negative emotions were associated with depression symptoms among all three groups. We also found initial evidence that acculturation (i.e., nativity) may influence the role of positive emotions in depression: Asian Americans fell "in between" the two other groups. These findings suggest the importance of studying the role of culture in positive emotions and in positive psychology. The use of interventions based on promoting positive emotions in clinical psychology among Asian clients is briefly discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
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The social psychology of health essays and readings
Graham, J., Nosek, B., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., Koleva, S., & Ditto, P. H. (2011). Mapping the moral domain. , (2), 366-385. doi:10.1037/a0021847 The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire on the basis of a theoretical model of 5 universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/Care, Fairness/Reciprocity, Ingroup/Loyalty, Authority/Respect, and Purity/Sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so we present new findings about morality: (a) Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a 5-factor structure of moral concerns; (b) convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant; and (c) we establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality.
Social psychology health essays readings
Gorin, S. S. (2010). Theory, measurement, and controversy in positive psychology, health psychology, and cancer: basics and next steps. , (1), 43–7. doi:10.1007/s12160–010–9171–y. The aims of this commentary are two–fold: First, to amplify some of the points that Aspinwall, Tedeschi, Coyne, Tennen, and Ranchor have raised, noting the importance of a return to basics. Second, to posit next steps in theory development and methods at the intersection of health psychology, positive psychology, and cancer. Additional theory development, more applications of large prospective studies, and instrument refinements are warranted to understand the effects of positive constructs on health outcomes and adaptation to cancer. This area of research would be strengthened by studies that incorporate survival, health–related quality of life, and well–being outcome measures, using cancer registries and/or multiple raters. More observational studies are necessary. Attention to social justice questions is suggested in future studies at the intersection of these fields.
Psychology of Health: Essays and Readings provides ..
Haidt, J., & Graham, J. (2007). When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. , (1), 98–116. doi:10.1007/s11211–007–0034–z. Researchers in moral psychology and social justice have agreed that morality is about matters of harm, rights, and justice. On this definition of morality, conservative opposition to social justice programs appears to be immoral, and has been explained as a product of various non–moral processes such as system justification or social dominance orientation. In this article we argue that, from an anthropological perspective, the moral domain is usually much broader, encompassing many more aspects of social life and valuing institutions as much or more than individuals. We present theoretical and empirical reasons for believing that there are five psychological systems that provide the foundations for the worlds many moralities. The five foundations are psychological preparations for detecting and reacting emotionally to issues related to harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, ingroup/loyalty, authority/respect, and purity/sanctity. Political liberals have moral intuitions primarily based upon the first two foundations, and therefore misunderstand the moral motivations of political conservatives, who generally rely upon all five foundations.
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