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Similarities Between Humans and Chimpanzees Essay
There is also behavioral evidence that animal signals may be contextsensitive in the same way linguistic utterances are. Just as someargue that the pragmatic context of language does significant semanticwork for humans (e.g. Stalnaker 1999; Sperber and Wilson 1986), boththe production of and the responses to animal signals can be dependenton contextual factors. For example, while honeybee waggle dancescommunicate to the nest mates the location of a food source, the dancedoes not determine their response; if an individual remembers thelocation of a preferable food source, the bee may visit that sourceinstead (Grüter . 2008; Grüter & Farina2009). And, on the production side, there is experimental evidencethat orangutans repeat a gesture when they are only partiallyunderstood, and will use different gestures when a message ismisunderstood (Cartmill & Byrne 2007).
Such worries arise in the formulation of the null hypothesis inexperimental research. Due to the standard statistical methods used inanimal cognition experiments, choice of the null hypothesis in termsof an animal lacking a cognitive capacity biases the research againstfinding evidence in favour of that capacity (Andrews & Huss 2014;Mikhalevich 2014; Sober 2005). One concern is that researchers mayhave a failure of imagination when it comes to hypothesis generation;they may make an inference to the best explanation argument withoutconsidering enough plausible explanations. This reflects Kennedy’sworry when he claims that the following argument for attributingmental properties to animals rests on a false dichotomy: eitheranimals are stimulus-response machines, or they are agents withbeliefs and desires; since animals are not stimulus-response machines,they must be psychological agents (Kennedy 1992). According toKennedy, the problem with this argument is that not all machinesimplement stimulus-response functions; some machines are complex andindeterministic, and if animals were machines, they would be machinesof that sort (Barlow 1990; Kennedy 1992). Similar concerns are putforward by those who stress, contra Darwin, the discontinuity betweenhumans and other animals (Penn . 2008).
Similarities Between Humans and Chimpanzees ..
Jane Goodall’s, In the Shadow of Man, describes some similar traits humans and chimpanzees have such as their facial expressions and emotions, use of tools, and diet.
Everyone must admit that there are striking similarities between men and certain animals! For many people, the leading attraction at the zoo is the monkey house, because monkeys resemble humans more than any other animals do, and it is amusing to watch them! If you were to look at the skeleton of an ape and the skeleton of a person, you would discover many similarities! How can we explain these remarkable similarities?
Non-Human and Human Animals: More Similarities Than ..
Experiments designed to examine the evolutionary roots of social normsare also suggestive. Chimpanzees look longer at video clips ofinfanticide than at other clips with striking stimuli but lacking normviolations (von Rohr . 2010). Whether such findingssuggest that normative elements are present in animal communities isan issue that requires further investigation. Many questions remain tobe answered (and asked). The mechanisms of altruism, cooperation andpunishment, the existence of social norms, the affective requirementsof moral reasoning are all issues that require conceptual analysis aswell as empirical investigation of prosocial behavior in humans andother animals.
Experimental studies of primate responses to violations of theirinterests (or of group norms) have uncovered mixed results. Forexample, while capuchin monkeys will withdraw and stop participatingin a task if they observe another monkey getting a better reward forthe same task (Brosnan & de Waal 2003), chimpanzees do not rejectan unequal division of resources in an ultimatum game (Jensen . 2007) (see philosophy of economics). Jensen and colleaguessuggest that chimpanzees may not be concerned with fairness, and areinstead rational maximizers of resources. In response it has beenargued that just as what counts as fair differs among humancommunities, what is unfair to humans may not be unfair to anotherspecies; researchers should consider natural behavior in order touncover potential fairness norms (Bekoff & Pierce 2009; Brosnan& Bshary 2010).
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Similarities Between Human and Animal Communication
With the fall of behaviorism and the rise of cognitivism inpsychology, animal cognition researchers have returned toinvestigating animal minds. Today there are many approaches tostudying animals experimentally, in labs, zoos, dogs’ living rooms,forests, fields, and oceans. One research program coming out of KyotoUniversity’s Primate Research Institute (PRI) investigates chimpanzeeminds by combining captive experimental research with chimpanzees inKyoto and wild observational and experimental research withchimpanzees in Africa (Matsuzawa . 2006). First, thephysical, cognitive, and social development of chimpanzees is takeninto account in the design of experiments, and subjects are raised bytheir mothers rather than by human caregivers or unrelated animals. Inaddition, lab work and fieldwork is synthesized; field observationsare used to develop experiments, and experiments are conducted both inthe field and in the laboratory. Finally, the method includes analysisof the physiological and biological features of the species that couldbe related to cognitive abilities.
similarities between animal sounds and human sounds
The post-Terrace research on symbolic communication expanded toinclude different species, such as the other apes, dolphins, parrots,and sea lions. In addition, the focus of some studies has shifted fromsyntax to semantics, and from production to comprehension. More recently, the investigation into whether other species can learn a symbol system in order to communicate with humans has largely lapsed, with focus shifting back to investigating syntactic skills independently from communicative meaning, and to animals’ natural communication capacities.
Difference Between Human and Animal Language Essay …
Although we don't have the results of the survey, just by talking with members, it's apparent that many members were not comfortable with the pre-1990 ceremony. Many people described it as bizarre and didn't want to go back again. Naturally people disliked the death oaths. Having to run their thumb across their throat as if it was a knife in order to show their commitment to not revealing the signs and tokens to nonmembers can be frightening. Just hearing the words used can be quite chilling in what is supposed to be one of the holiest places on earth.
Humans, birds and (occasionally) apes walk bipedally
Social knowledge offers a window for field researchers who investigateanimal concepts. Cheney and Seyfarth argue that primate behaviorrelies on a rich body of social knowledge, and that this knowledgesuggests that primates have conceptual understanding (Cheney &Seyfarth 2009, 2015). Taking the case of baboons, we know that theyrecognize individuals, classify them into groups according toproperties including close social bonds, kinship, dominance ranks, andtransient sexual relations. For example, knowledge of kinship isdemonstrated in instances of kin-mediated reconciliation, when anantagonistic encounter is resolved by a kin of the aggressor giving areconciliation grunt. This categorical information informs baboonbehavior. In addition, some of these relationships change over time,and can have widespread repercussions over the group dominanceorganization. Baboons are able to quickly make adjustments aboutlinear dominance ranks after a rank reversal, even when the reversalaffects different matrilines and causes changes in the rankrelationship of several individuals. Cheney and Seyfarth argue thatmemory and classical conditioning alone cannot account for therichness of primate social knowledge, given the amount informationprimates would have to represent — they claim that a baboonwould have to learn thousands of dyadic relations, and tens ofthousands of triadic relations in order to anticipate other animals’behavior. In addition to worries about the space needed to representall those relations, they point out that the speed of baboon behaviorin response to a complex problem is not consistent with the hypothesisthat baboons solve social problems by searching through a humongousand unstructured database of relations. Rather, Cheney and Seyfarthsuggest that baboons and other primates with complex social societiesorganize individuals into rule-governed classes, or concepts. This,they argue, is an adaptive strategy (Cheney & Seyfarth 2009).
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