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Nationalism in europe 1800s essay writing - IES …
The most successful of the early parties was the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) established in June 1923 by Herbert Macaulay in response to a constitutional reform in 1922. A new Legislative Council was empowered to legislate for the Colony of Lagos and Southern Nigeria. The Council had forty-six members, nineteen of them unofficial and twenty-seven official. Of the nineteen, four had to be elected in the municipalities of Lagos and Calabar, the only two towns where the educated elite was allowed to use the franchise. The NNDP was founded to contest these elections. The NNDP published the first elaborate manifesto, with an important preamble:
Summary: Prior to World War I, most of the Irish population favored constitutional reform (devolution) rather than complete independence from Great Britain. The Great War transformed public opinion and led the public to support the formation of a free Irish republic rather than a parliament devolved from the British parliament at Westminster. Thomas Hennessey examines this important change and the resulting realignment of the relationship between unionists and nationalists. While other scholars have seen the Northern conflict in terms of religious or class division, Hennessey argues that the polarisation of Irish and British identities during the war are actually at the root of the problem. Rather than a Catholic/Protestant conflict, the war in Northern Ireland is the result of contested national identity. The fundamental difference between Loyalists and Nationalists is that Loyalists have a "Britannic identity" while Irish nationalists do not. 
George Orwell: "Notes on Nationalism" - The Resort …
Colonial policies generated discontent among the people – especially the elite who originally demanded reforms, and later on, independence. Among the issues that displeased the people were racism and the damage to traditional values during European rule. Nigerians in the civil service complained of racial discrimination in appointments and promotions. The aspiring ones among them were envious of the status and privileges enjoyed by white officials. Among those who complained about excessive changes, nationalism was expressed in cultural ways – that is, in deliberate efforts to promote Nigerian food, names, forms of dress, languages, and even religions. The Christians among them tried to reform Christianity to suit local values, such as large families and polygamy, and to draw from it ideas of liberty, equality, and justice. To the majority of the population, the Native Authorities were both oppressive and corrupt. Many Nigerians believed they could overcome the problems of low prices for raw materials and expatriate control of the economy only if they had the power to determine their own destiny. To the Nigerian businesswomen and men who saw themselves driven out of trade by foreign companies and combines, an identification with anti-colonial movement became a strategy of regaining control.
Summary: This analysis of Western sub-state nationalisms under conditions of globalization takes as its starting point Montserrat Guibernaus view of contemporary politics as defined by a dialectic in which the Western state is being squeezed from above by supra-state organizations that demand the cession of some of the states sovereignty, and from below by sub-state nationalisms that challenge the states legitimacy. It is within the framework of this dialectic that she proposes to consider the current situation and the etiologies of Western "nations without states [ i.e., those] cultural communities sharing a common past, attached to a clearly demarcated territory, and wishing to decide upon their political future which lack a state of their own" (1).
Rise of Afrikaner Nationalism in South Africa Essay - …
A prominent member of the NYM was Nnamdi Azikiwe. When he joined in 1937, he was elected into its Central Executive Council. In the same year he established the West African Pilot, which became an instant success with a wide circulation and an unapologetically anti-colonial stance. The paper’s editorials focused on the themes of colonial injustice, exploitation, and racism. With Lagos as his base, Azikiwe was the first prominent nationalist from eastern Nigeria and he was able to mobilize the Igbo elite in Lagos in support of the NYM. Azikiwe energized the nationalist movement in West Africa from 1934 to 1949, becoming the best known anti-colonial crusader and journalist. Articulate and indefatigable, “Zik”, as he was called by thousands of his admirers, employed oratory and complex diction to great effect. He himself experienced the dramatic changes of the colonial period. As a young boy, he grew up in an urban, heterogeneous setting. He disliked the treatment of his father in the Nigerian Regiment, and of himself as a clerk from 1923 to 1925. He struggled to reach the United States where he attended a predominantly black college as a poor student and observed racial discrimination and protests by African-American organizations. Even with two degrees, he could not secure a civil service job in his own country and had to go to the Gold Coast (now Ghana) to establish the Accra Morning Post and publish his first book, Renascent Africa. In 1937 his newspaper published an essay by a labor leader, I.T.A. Wallace-Johnson, entitled “Has the African a God?” that criticized the colonial government in a way that it found libelous. Azikiwe was convicted, but later acquitted on appeal. He returned to Nigeria, where he became both a journalist and a nationalist.
Summary: is an important book in the historiography on nationalism as it is one of the best accounts by a Marxist of the development of nations. Hobsbawm defines nationalism as "primarily a principle which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent" (9). He argues that nations are a modern construction and that they are not unchanging social entities. Hobsbawm views the development of nations as "situated at the point of intersection of politics, technology and social transformation" (10) and he argues that they must be seen as such. He claims that nations have traditionally been understood as top-down constructions and argues that they must also be looked at from the bottom up. Building on this idea, he claims that: 1) ideologies of states are not guides to how the people feel; 2) we cannot assume that most people place national identity above other identities which constitute the social being; and, 3) that national identification changes over time. Finally, Hobsbawm argues that the nationalism in developed nations has not been adequately studied. Hobsbawm spends particular time on the importance of language. He places particular importance on the development of class consciousness which, in turn, led to the development of the mass politics which made nations possible.
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Essay on the Rise of Nationalism in Nigeria
The transfer of power to Nigerians was effected through peaceful constitutional changes after 1945. Within fifteen years the country attained self-rule made possible by a combination of constitutional reforms and the existence of Nigerian leadership and political parties working to acquire power. Nigerian leaders organized political associations and mobilized different constituencies to gain concessions. The leaders appealed to anti-colonial sentiments, and less to history, culture, and language. They exaggerated what independence would bring to everybody, contrasting this with the limitations of colonial accomplishments. Younger, radical nationalist leaders emerged. The organization of country-wide political parties became important in the struggles to gain power while the British increased the Nigerian membership in the Legislative Councils and approved a number of constitutional changes, eventually culminating in independence.
Nationalism had a nineteenth-century origin
Bohbzhynsky), published An Outline History of Poland in 1879, condemning old, pre-partition Poland for its lack of strong rulers, and the Polish national uprisings against Russia of 1830-31 and 1863-64 as romantic and thus unrealistic.
The Nationalism Project: Books by Author G-H
The Second World War had its impact on nationalism. About 100,000 Nigerians were recruited to fight. Many were exposed to wartime propaganda on liberty, equality, and freedom. After their discharge, many of them joined political parties. The allied propaganda in favor of freedom and against exploitation was used against the British. The interactions between Nigerian soldiers and their white counterparts, and the contacts with white soldiers stationed in Nigeria, diminished the respect which many Nigerians had for whites in general, further emboldening them to make demands. Many of those who served abroad enjoyed a higher standard of living, which they could not maintain when the war ended, and they came to associate an end to colonial rule with better living standards.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983
Until 1930, political parties were largely elitist, urban-based, and focused on demands for reforms rather than independence. In the 1940s and beyond, nationalism witnessed an upsurge: the anti-colonial movement was expanded beyond Lagos to other cities and villages, and vigorous demands were made for independence by the media and front-line nationalists. In the preceding years, the atmosphere had become charged by the invasion of Ethiopia by Italy in 1935. Many Africans were enraged by this attack on an independent African country, rich in and culture, and they began to call for self-government.
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