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Sartre's existentialism is a philosophy, which deals with man....

The fact that the ultimate term of this existential inquiry must be a choice, distinguishes even better the psychoanalysis for which we have outlined the method and principal features. It thereby abandons the supposition that the environment acts mechanically on the subject under consideration. The environment can act on the subject only to the exact extent that he comprehends it; that is, transforms it into a situation. Hence no objective description of this environment could be of any use to us. From the start the environment conceived as a situation refers to the for-itself which is choosing, just as the for-itself refers to the environment by the very fact that the for-itself is in the world. By renouncing all mechanical causation, we renounce at the same time all general interpretation of the symbolization confronted. Our goal could not be to establish empirical laws of succession, nor could we constitute a universal symbolism. Rather the psychoanalyst will have to rediscover at each step a symbol functioning in the particular case which he is considering. If each being is a totality, it is not conceivable that there can exist elementary symbolic relationships (eg. the faeces=gold, or a pincushion=the breast) which preserve a constant meaning in all cases; that is, which remain unaltered when they pass from one meaningful ensemble to another ensemble. Furthermore the psychoanalyst will never lose sight of the fact that the choice is living and consequently can be revoked by the subject who is being studied. We have shown in the preceding chapter the importance of the instant, which represents abrupt changes in orientation and the assuming of a new position in the face of an unalterable past. From this moment on, we must always be ready to consider that symbols change meaning and to abandon the symbol used hitherto. Thus existential psychoanalysis will have to be completely flexible and adapt itself to the slightest observable changes in the subject. Our concern here is to understand what is individual and often even instantaneous. The method which has served for one subject will not necessarily be suitable to use for another subject or for the same subject at a later period.

 The fourth and final charge laid against existentialism is that of arbitrariness.

Sartre uses his literary talents and places countless themes and literary devices in The Flies in order to make statements about human beings as well as the political turmoil of 1946; freedom is a constant and obvious theme throughout the play, and Sartre even goes so far as to use inanimate objects, such as stones, to insert deeper meaning into the play.

Existentialism and Humanism and Being and Nothingness.

The philosophical term, Existentialism, came from Jean Paul Sartre, a French philosopher.

For a complete annotated bibliography of Sartre's works see MichelContat and Michel Rybalka (eds.), The Writings of Jean-PaulSartre (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1973),updated in Magazine littéraire 103–4 (1975), pp. 9–49,and by Michel Sicard in Obliques, 18–19 (May 1979), pp.331–47. Michel Rybalka and Michel Contat have complied an additionalbibliography of primary and secondary sources published since Sartre'sdeath in Sartre: Bibliography, 1980–1992 (Bowling Green, OH:Philosophy Documentation Center; Paris: CNRS Editions, 1993).

The second concept that issues from Sartre's later writingwhich is of immediate relevance to feminist thought is that ofpositive reciprocity and its attendant notion ofgenerosity. We are familiar with the conflictual nature ofinterpersonal relations in Sartre's vintage existentialistwritings: “Hell is other people” and the like. But in hisaesthetic writings and in the Notebooks for an Ethics, hedescribes the artist's work as a generous act, an invitation fromone freedom to another. He even suggests that this might serve as amodel for interpersonal relations in general. And in his major work insocial ontology, the Critique of Dialectical Reason, Sartrecharts the move from objectifying and alienating relationships (series)to the positive reciprocity of the group members. Somefeminist authors have employed these Sartrean concepts in theirarguments. There remains much still to extract from Sartre'slater works in this area.

Essays in Existentialism by Jean-Paul Sartre - Goodreads

Jean Paul Sartre wrote 'No Exit', where he portrayed his philosophy negatively.

I shall try today to answer these different charges. Many people are going to be surprised at what is said here about humanism. We shall try to see in what sense it is to be understood. In any case, what can be said from the very beginning is that by existentialism we mean a doctrine which makes human life possible and, in addition, declares that every truth and every action implies a human setting and a human subjectivity.

The dictionary defines existentialism as an individual’s experience filled with isolation in a hostile universe where a human being attempts to find true self and the meaning of life through free will, choice, and personal responsibility.

In my presentation I will first give a brief over view of Sartre's existentialism.
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Essays in Existentialism has 791 ratings and 20 reviews

Both our psychoanalyses refuse to admit that the subject is in a privileged position to proceed in these inquiries concerning himself. They equally insist on a strictly objective method, using as documentary evidence the data of reflection as well as the testimony of others. Of course the subject can undertake a psychoanalytic investigation of himself. But in this case he must renounce at the outset all benefit stemming from his peculiar position and must question himself exactly as if he were someone else. Empirical psychoanalysis in fact is based on the hypothesis of the existence of aft unconscious psyche, which on principle escapes the intuition of the subject. Existential psychoanalysis rejects the hypothesis of the unconscious; it makes the psychic act coextensive with consciousness. But if the fundamental project is fully experienced by the subject and hence wholly conscious, that certainly does not mean that it must by the same token be known by him; quite the contrary. The reader will perhaps recall the care we took in the Introduction to distinguish between consciousness and knowledge. To be sure, as we have seen earlier, reflection can be considered as a quasi-knowledge. But what it grasps at each moment is not the pure project of the for-itself as it is symbolically expressedoften in several ways at onceby the concrete behavior which it apprehends. It grasps the concrete behavior itself; that is, the specific dated desire in all its characteristic network. It grasps at once symbol and symbolization. This apprehension, to be sure, is entirely constituted by a preontological comprehension of the fundamental project; better yet, in so far as reflection is almost a nonthetic consciousness of itself as reflection, it is this same project, as well as the nonreflective consciousness. But it does not follow that it commands the instruments and techniques necessary to isolate the choice symbolized, to fix it by concepts, and to bring it forth into the full light of day. It is penetrated by a great light without being able to express what this light is illuminating. We are not dealing with an unsolved riddle as the Freudians believe; all is there, luminous; reflection is in full possession of it, apprehends all. But this "mystery in broad daylight" is due to the fact that this possession is deprived of the means which would ordinarily permit analysis and conceptualization. It grasps everything, all at once, without shading, without relief, without connections of grandeurnot that these shades, these values, these reliefs exist some where and are hidden from it, but rather because they must be established by another human attitude and because they can exist only by means of and for knowledge. Reflection, unable to serve as the basis for existential psychoanalysis, will then simply furnish us with the brute materials toward which the psychoanalyst must take an objective attitude. Thus only will he be able to know what he already understands. The result is that complexes uprooted from the depths of the unconscious, like projects revealed by existential psychoanalysis, will be apprehended from the point of view of the Other. Consequently the object thus brought into the light will be articulated according to the structures of the transcended-transcendence; that is, its being will be the being-for-others even if the psychoanalyst and the subject of the psychoanalysis are actually the same person. Thus the project which is brought to light by either kind of psychoanalysis can be only the totality of the individual human being, the irreducible element of the transcendence with the structure of being-for-others. What always escapes these methods of investigation is the project as it is for itself, the complex in its own being. This project-for-itself can be experienced only as a living possession; there is an incompatibility between existence-for-itself and objective existence. But the object of the two psychoanalyses has in it nonetheless the reality of a being, the subject's knowledge of it can in addition contribute to clarify reflection, and that reflection can then become a possession which will be a quasi-knowing.

Essays in Existentialism - Jean-Paul Sartre - Google Books

Empirical psychoanalysis and existential psychoanalysis both search within an existing situation for a fundamental attitude which cannot be expressed by simple, logical definitions because it is prior to all logic, and which requires reconstruction according to the laws of specific syntheses. Empirical psychoanalysis seeks to determine the complex, the very name of which indicates the polyvalence of all the meanings which are referred back to it. Existential psychoanalysis seeks to determine the original choice. This original choice operating in the face of the world and being a choice of position in the world is total like the complex; it is prior to logic like the complex. It is this which decides the attitude of the person when confronted with logic and principles; therefore there can be no possibility of questioning it in conformance to logic. It brings together in a prelogical synthesis the totality of the existent, and as such it is the center of reference for infinity of polyvalent meanings.

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