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In recent years, Neogene temperatures have been the focus of intensive research. What appears to be the proximate cause of elevated temperatures was a dramatic change in global ocean currents. The final closing of the , the isolation of Antarctica, the creation of , and the opening and closing of land bridges, such as in the Bering Sea and ultimately the land bridge between North and South America, created dramatic changes in ocean currents and global climate. One result was fluctuating . Its production declined beginning about 24 mya, and its weakness lasted until about 14 mya. Consequently, Earth’s oceans were not stratified as they are today, and warm water extended far lower into the oceans than it does today. Also, it reduced the temperature gradient between the equator and poles, which drives global currents: the greater the differential, the more vigorous the currents. It was still an Icehouse Earth, but the “mid-Miocene climatic optimum” was relatively warm. The past three million years are the coldest that Earth has seen since the that ended 260 mya, but this . While the steadily declining carbon dioxide levels of the past 150-100 million years is the ultimate cause of this Icehouse Earth phase, relatively short-term and regional fluctuations have had their proximate causes rooted in other geophysical, geochemical, and celestial dynamics.
The process of transforming requires millions of years. When organic sediments are buried, most of the oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur of dead organisms is released, leaving behind carbon and some hydrogen in a substance called , in a process that is . Plate tectonics can subduct sediments, particularly where oceanic plates meet continental plates. There is an “oil window” roughly between 2,000 and 5,000 meters deep; if kerogen-rich sediments are buried at those depths for long enough (millions of years), (which produce high temperature and pressure) break down complex organic molecules and the result is the hydrocarbons that comprise petroleum. If organic sediments never get that deep, they remain kerogen. If they are subducted deeper than that for long enough, bonds are broken and the result is , which is also called . Today, the geological processes that make oil can be reproduced in industrial settings that can in a matter of hours. Many hydrocarbon sources touted today as replacements for conventional oil were never in the oil window, so were not “refined” into oil and remain kerogen. The so-called and are made of kerogen ( is soluble kerogen). It takes a great deal of energy to refine kerogen into oil, which is why kerogen is an inferior energy resource. Nearly a century ago in it took less than one barrel of oil energy to produce one hundred barrels, for an energy return on investment ("EROI" or "") of more than 100, in the Golden Age of Oil. Global EROI is declining fast and will fall to about 10 by 2020. The EROIs of those oil shales and oil sands are less than five and as low as two.
Global Warming and Climate Change Essay - …
The ecosystems may not have recovered from Olson’s Extinction of 270 mya, and at 260 mya came another mass extinction that is called the mid-Permian or extinction, or the , although a recent study found only one extinction event, in the mid-Capitanian. In the 1990s, the extinction was thought to result from falling sea levels. But the first of the two huge volcanic events coincided with the event, in . There can be several deadly outcomes of major volcanic events. As with an , massive volcanic events can block sunlight with the ash and create wintry conditions in the middle of summer. That alone can cause catastrophic conditions for life, but that is only one potential outcome of volcanism. What probably had far greater impact were the gases belched into the air. As oxygen levels crashed in the late Permian, there was also a huge carbon dioxide spike, as shown by , and the late-Permian volcanism is the near-unanimous choice as the primary reason. That would have helped create super-greenhouse conditions that perhaps came right on the heels of the volcanic winter. Not only would carbon dioxide vent from the mantle, as with all volcanism, but the late-Permian volcanism occurred beneath Ediacaran and Cambrian hydrocarbon deposits, which burned them and spewed even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Not only that, great salt deposits from the Cambrian Period were also burned via the volcanism, which created hydrochloric acid clouds. Volcanoes also spew sulfur, which reacts with oxygen and water to form . The oceans around the volcanoes would have become acidic, and that fire-and-brimstone brew would have also showered the land. Not only that, but the warming initiated by the initial carbon dioxide spike could have then warmed up the oceans enough so that methane hydrates were liberated and create even more global warming. Such global warming apparently warmed the poles, which not only melted away the last ice caps and ended an ice age that had , but deciduous forests are in evidence at high latitudes. A 100-million-year Icehouse Earth period ended and a 200-million-year Greenhouse Earth period began, but the transition appears to have been chaotic, with wild swings in greenhouse gas levels and global temperatures. Warming the poles would have lessened the heat differential between the equator and poles and further diminished the lazy Panthalassic currents. The landlocked Paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans, and perhaps even the Panthalassic Ocean, may have all become superheated and anoxic as the currents died. Huge also happened, which may have and led to ultraviolet light damage to land plants and animals. That was all on top of the oxygen crash. With the current state of research, all of the above events may have happened, in the greatest confluence of life-hostile conditions during the eon of complex life. A recent study suggests that the extinction event that ended the Permian may have lasted only 60,000 years or so. In 2001, a bolide event was proposed for the Permian extinction with great fanfare, but it does not appear to be related to the Permian extinction; the other dynamics would have been quite sufficient. The Permian extinction was the greatest catastrophe that Earth’s life experienced since the previous supercontinent existed in the .
On land, the devastation was similar. Again, insects , and several orders of insects vanished from the fossil record after the Permian; those of Paleozoic times also vanished forever. Permian forests gave way to deciduous forests in the wake of global warming, and early gymnosperms and seed ferns were largely replaced as made a comeback in the early Triassic. The lycophyte radiation in the wake of the Permian extinction is typical of what are called , which are the first organisms to colonize disturbed environments. Reptiles and amphibians lost nearly two-thirds of their families, which translates to more than 90% of all species. All large herbivores and predators went extinct, along with gliding reptiles. In total, the Permian extinctions wiped out about 90-96% of all species, more than 80% of all genera, and nearly 60% of all families. Nothing else in the history of complex life comes close and puts the Permian extinction in a category all its own.
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It contained the organization’s book “Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming,” as well as a DVD rejecting the human role in climate change and arguing instead that rising temperatures have been caused primarily by natural phenomena. The material will be sent to an additional 25,000 teachers every two weeks until every public-school science teacher in the nation has a copy, Heartland president and CEO Joseph Bast said in an interview last week. If so, the campaign would reach 200,000 K-12 science teachers.
| Yahoo Answers" border="0" height="37" width="68">You should now have read the general information about thesis statements and have a WRITE: Of all the factors that contribute to global warming, industrial such as anti-terrorism legislation, which allows imprisonment without trial, have .
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Global Warming Essay Essay Examples - New York essay
We must stop Global warming because global warming is causing problems on the earth and every creature living on it such as raising of water, climate change, and Aquatic animal danger however there are some good effects too....
Writing Your Essay on Climate Change and Global Warming
This paper will describe the nature of global warming, as well as the basic causes and effects of this continuous rise of the Earth’s temperature and explain how people can stop this process contributing to the clean and safe planet not only for the present but also for the future generations....
Argumentative Essay On Global Warming Free Essays
To stop global warming we should stop polluting the air and water also growing trees is a very good way to stop global warming because global warming changes the temperature however, trees can balance the temperature by keeping the temperature cold.
Argumentative Essay on Global Warming ..
In 1987, we , where I had been raised, before the sledgehammer in Boston could fall on us. We moved because I had connected us with technologies and talent that made our free energy ideas potentially feasible. Our public awareness efforts became highly successful and we were . In early 1988, our efforts were targeted by the local authorities, again at the behest of energy interests, both local and global. In a , mere weeks after those same authorities , my radicalization began. A few months later, my partner was offered about by that shadowy global group; the CIA delivered that offer. Soon after my partner refused their offer, he was arrested with a and our nightmare began. The turning point of my life was when I became the defense’s key witness and the as they tried to intimidate me. It helped inspire me to in an attempt to free my partner. My gesture incredibly worked, in the greatest miracle that I ever witnessed. I helped free my partner, but my life had been ruined by the events of 1988, and in 1990 . I had been radicalized (""), and I then spent the next several years seeking understanding of what I had lived through and why the world worked starkly differently from how I was taught that it did. I began the that culminated in publishing my first website in 1996, which was also when I after he was released from prison, after the and . The Global Controllers then to new, sophisticated levels and I nearly went to prison.
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