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Thomas Paine Citizen Of The World
To assess the extent to which Common Sense led to increased colonial support for independence from Great Britain, the investigation focuses on the novel methods and ideas Paine used in his pamphlet to persuade his readers and the subsequent success of his pamphlet as evidenced by the political and social actions that took place after—and as a result of—its distribution....
Paine didn't see, writes Keane, "that he was among the first modern public figures to suffer firsthand an increasingly concentrated press equipped with the power to peddle one-sided interpretations of the world."
Paine, Thomas - Enlightenment Revolution
Paine returned to England in 1787, and in the 1790’s, he began again to immerse himself in political affairs, this time in support of the French revolution. In 1791-2, Paine published his most important contribution to political philosophy, the , in which he defended political rights for all persons on the grounds of their natural equality under God and concluded, much as in the , that only a republic founded on the democratic principles could protect the equal rights of all citizens, who were to benefit from his detailed program of social legislation aimed at alleviating poverty. Paine, who had also hoped by his writings to ferment social revolution in Britain, was forced to leave England in September 1792, whereupon he relocated to France. In August 1792, he became a French citizen and was subsequently elected to the National Convention. Incapable as ever of compromising his principles, Paine soon ran afoul of the Committee of Public Safety and was imprisoned in Paris until released through the intercession of the new American minister, James Monroe. Ironically, Paine, who was thought to be too radical for his native land, in part because of his opposition to execution by guillotine of King Louis XVI, was simultaneously perceived as too moderate by the extreme Jacobin faction that came to dominate the French revolution during the Reign of Terror.
It was during his incarceration that Paine began work on his most ambitious work, , published in 1794-1795. In this philosophical work, Paine rejects Christianity, expressed his commitment to science in the person of Isaac Newton, and argues that nature reveals the existence of God in the lawlike order of the universe. Paine denies that the Bible is the revealed word of God and maintains that many of its stories are immoral and riddled with logical inconsistencies. is Paine’s manifesto for deism, the view that a God probably exists as the intelligent designer of the universe, but that there is no reason to attribute any moral attributes that to god obligate human beings to worship God or consider God a righteous judge. Paine’s political and religious activities earned him considerable enmity in France as in England, and in October 1802, he returned to the United States. Although warmly welcomed by Jefferson, Paine remained impoverished, officially neglected, and in ill health, until his death on 8 June 1809.
Civic organizations: active constitutional matters
To compound his professional hardships, around 1760, Paine's wife and child both died in childbirth, and his business, that of making stay ropes, went under. In the summer of 1772, Paine published "The Case of the Officers of Excise," a 21-page article in defense of higher pay for excise officers. It was his first political work, and he spent that winter in London, handing out the 4,000 copies of the article to members of Parliament and other citizens. In spring of 1774, Paine was fired from the excise office, and began to see his outlook as bleak. Luckily, he soon met Benjamin Franklin, who advised him to move to America and provided him with letters of introduction to the newly formed nation.
Burke may have an opportunity of contradicting the rumour, if he thinks proper.
The Author's Preface to the French Edition
The astonishment which the French Revolution has caused throughout Europe should be considered from two different points of view: first as it affects foreign peoples, secondly as it affects their governments.
The cause of the French people is that of all Europe, or rather of the whole world; but the governments of all those countries are by no means favorable to it.
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Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg
Although he never spoke fluent French, Paine was acclaimed a national hero by adoring crowds and soon was helping devise a constitution for the new French republic. Meanwhile, as the Terror deepened and thousands fell victim to revenge killings, Paine audaciously opposed plans to execute King Louis XVI of France. In December 1793 he was imprisoned in Luxembourg, a palace-turned-jail, where he would remain under constant threat of execution for 315 days. His health broken by incarceration, Paine nonetheless wrote The Age of Reason, his greatest attack on official religion.
Several of his books online, at Project Gutenberg.
After Cobbett's death in 1835, his son auctioned off all his worldly goods, but the auctioneer refused to include the box that supposedly contained Paine's bones. Years later, a Unitarian minister in England claimed to own Paine's skull and right hand (though he wouldn't show them to anybody). Parts of Paine, truly by now the "universal citizen" he wanted to be, have been reported turning up intermittently ever since. In the 1930s, a woman in Brighton claimed to own what clearly would be the best part of Paine to have - his jawbone. As historian Moncure Daniel Conway wrote a hundred years ago: "As to his bones, no man knows the place of their rest to this day. His principles rest not."
Impact Of French Revolution On English Literature Free Essays …
Paine was born in Thetford, an English country town, where his Quaker father, Joseph Pain [sic] was a corset maker. Tom was well read, but his formal education ended at age 13, and his early efforts as teacher, tobacconist, tax collector, and even husband mostly ended in failure. In 1772 Paine met Benjamin Franklin, then Pennsylvania’s colonial representative in London. Armed with letters of introduction, Paine set sail for Philadelphia in October 1774. Although a novice writer, Paine was hired by Pennsylvania Magazine, where his essays boosted the monthly’s circulation.
"A Debate On French Revolution Laid To The Foundation …
Although he had left the United States a revolutionary hero, Paine soon outraged the American clergy by publishing The Age of Reason. He infuriated the business community with his pro-labor writings in England and by publishing Agrarian Justice. He also wandered into the middle of increasingly vicious domestic politics. Federalists, looking for ground to attack Jefferson, seized upon his invitation to Paine to come home. Paine was savaged as a heretic, and as an unwashed, drunken infidel. He was attacked in columns and stories, insulted on the streets and in public places. Not only had the children forgotten the father, they had turned on him.
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