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The use of animals in scientific research

In summary, defenders of animal experimentation argue that humans have higher moral status than animals and fundamental rights that animals lack. Accordingly, potential animal rights violations are outweighed by the greater human benefits of animal research.

Animals and Scientific Research Essay Sample

Female simians usually stay within their society of origin, while males leave. That is how simians prevented , but that pattern is reversed in chimpanzee and gorilla societies, in which females usually leave. Sexual coercion of females is common behavior among simians. and are among the few simians that overcame it, and it seems to have been due to ecological dynamics. Humans have partially discarded that behavior during the industrial age. Those are obviously highly charged areas of behavioral research, and is a scientific discipline. A is arguably the of science, and behavioral sciences have often been plagued with a lack of them, going back to , which has caused some to say that psychology is not really a science. This essay will soon sail into some of those murky waters.

Animals And Scientific Researches - 557 Words - …

of Animal Research in VA

In Paleocene oceans, sharks filled the empty niches left by aquatic reptiles, but it took coral reefs ten million years to begin to recover, . As Africa and India moved northward, the shrank, and in the late Paleocene and early Eocene, one of the last Tethyan anoxic events laid down Middle East oil, and the last Paleocene climate event is called the (“PETM”). The PETM has been the focus of a great deal of recent research because of its parallels to today’s industrial era, when carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are massively vented to the atmosphere, causing a warming atmosphere and acidifying oceans. The seafloor communities suffered a mass extinction and the PETM’s causes are uncertain, but the when the global ocean warmed sufficiently is a prominent hypothesis. Scientists also look to the usual suspects of volcanism, changes in oceanic circulation, and a bolide impact.

Polar forests reappeared in the Eocene after the , and the Eocene’s was the Cenozoic’s warmest time and . Not only did alligators live near the North Pole, but the continents and oceans hosted an abundance and diversity of life that Earth may have not seen before or since. That ten million year period ended as Earth began cooling off and headed toward the current ice age, and it has been called the original Paradise Lost. One way that methane has been implicated in those hot times is that leaves have , which regulate the air they take in to obtain carbon dioxide and oxygen, needed for photosynthesis and respiration. Plants also lose water vapor through their stomata, so balancing gas input needs against water losses are key stomata functions, and it is thought that in periods of high carbon dioxide concentration, . Scientists can count stomata density in fossil leaves, which led some scientists to conclude that carbon dioxide levels were not high enough to produce the PETM, so that produced the PETM and , and the controversy and research continues.

Animal Testing in Scientific Research Essay - 826 …

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8. The usefulness of animaltesting has been questioned for many years now. There are a lot ofmedical achievements that has been possible due to animal testing, toname a few- Isolation of the AIDS virus, the improvements inanti-depressants and other psychotic drugs, the development of X-raysand many others. Similarly, there is also an abominable side ofanimal testing. It has been reported by the American MedicalAssociation that every year about 100,000 people die from consumingprescription drugs and a lot more (2 million) get hospitalizedbecause of the grave complications that arise from the prescriptiondrugs. In light of these findings, it is understandable with perfectclarity that there needs to be an alternative way to make progress inthe field of medical science. Even if we turn a blind eye to the factthat animal testing is cruel and immoral, we cannot overlook howcostly it has been to the human health.

9. Humans rationalize the crueltyand heartless condition they inflict upon laboratory animals by usingadvancement of medical research as a purpose. But the truth has nowcome to the fore, animal testing can no longer be deemed as aneffective method for drugs and cosmetics research. This is due to thefact that there is a large distinction between animals and the humanspecies.

To What Extent Is The Use Of Animals In Research …
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Animals for Scientific Experimentation Essay - Paper …

The , like the prior , was more than one event and had more than one cause. The is what most people think about when mass extinctions are mentioned (as it was Hollywood-spectacular and ended one fascinating line of animals and paved the way for mammals to dominate), and it led to the existence of humans, but the Permian extinction was the Big One. Before the began lifting in the 1970s and 1980s, specialists generally thought that the Permian extinction only impacted the oceans and left terrestrial ecosystems unaffected. The picture has radically changed since the 1980s, and the terrestrial extinctions are now acknowledged as similarly catastrophic. The Permian extinction is Earth’s only mass extinction of insects, and although plants are not normally vulnerable to mass extinctions, land plants also barely survived the Permian extinction. But the extinction came in phases, and each may have had different causes. There is great ongoing controversy and research regarding the issues.

Should Animals be Used for Scientific Research? Essay | …

What was most relevant to humans, however, was the almost-complete extinction during the Kellwasser event of the tetrapods that had come ashore. Tetrapods did not reappear in the fossil record until several million years after the Kellwasser event, and has even been referred to as the Fammenian Gap (the is the Devonian’s last age). The Kellwasser event also appeared to be a period of low atmospheric oxygen content, and some evidence is the lack of charcoal in fossil deposits. Recent research has demonstrated that getting wood to burn at oxygen levels of less than 13-15% may be impossible. Because all periods of complex land life show evidence of forest fires, it is today thought that oxygen levels have not dropped below 13-15% since the Devonian, but during the “charcoal gap” of the late Devonian, when the first landlubbing tetrapods went extinct, oxygen levels reached their lowest levels since the , which must have impacted the first animals trying to breathe air instead of water. During the , there is no charcoal evidence at all, which leads to the notion that oxygen levels may have even dropped below 13%. This drop may be related to severe climatic stresses on the new forests, which are probably related to the ice age that the forests helped bring about due to their carbon sequestering. That is an attractively explanatory scenario, but the continues. The first seed plants probably appeared before the Kellwasser event, but it was not until after the Fammenian Gap that seed plants began to proliferate.

Animals Should Not Be Used In Scientific Research Essays

The ecosystems may not have recovered from Olson’s Extinction of 270 mya, and at 260 mya came another mass extinction that is called the mid-Permian or extinction, or the , although a recent study found only one extinction event, in the mid-Capitanian. In the 1990s, the extinction was thought to result from falling sea levels. But the first of the two huge volcanic events coincided with the event, in . There can be several deadly outcomes of major volcanic events. As with an , massive volcanic events can block sunlight with the ash and create wintry conditions in the middle of summer. That alone can cause catastrophic conditions for life, but that is only one potential outcome of volcanism. What probably had far greater impact were the gases belched into the air. As oxygen levels crashed in the late Permian, there was also a huge carbon dioxide spike, as shown by , and the late-Permian volcanism is the near-unanimous choice as the primary reason. That would have helped create super-greenhouse conditions that perhaps came right on the heels of the volcanic winter. Not only would carbon dioxide vent from the mantle, as with all volcanism, but the late-Permian volcanism occurred beneath Ediacaran and Cambrian hydrocarbon deposits, which burned them and spewed even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Not only that, great salt deposits from the Cambrian Period were also burned via the volcanism, which created hydrochloric acid clouds. Volcanoes also spew sulfur, which reacts with oxygen and water to form . The oceans around the volcanoes would have become acidic, and that fire-and-brimstone brew would have also showered the land. Not only that, but the warming initiated by the initial carbon dioxide spike could have then warmed up the oceans enough so that methane hydrates were liberated and create even more global warming. Such global warming apparently warmed the poles, which not only melted away the last ice caps and ended an ice age that had , but deciduous forests are in evidence at high latitudes. A 100-million-year Icehouse Earth period ended and a 200-million-year Greenhouse Earth period began, but the transition appears to have been chaotic, with wild swings in greenhouse gas levels and global temperatures. Warming the poles would have lessened the heat differential between the equator and poles and further diminished the lazy Panthalassic currents. The landlocked Paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans, and perhaps even the Panthalassic Ocean, may have all become superheated and anoxic as the currents died. Huge also happened, which may have and led to ultraviolet light damage to land plants and animals. That was all on top of the oxygen crash. With the current state of research, all of the above events may have happened, in the greatest confluence of life-hostile conditions during the eon of complex life. A recent study suggests that the extinction event that ended the Permian may have lasted only 60,000 years or so. In 2001, a bolide event was proposed for the Permian extinction with great fanfare, but it does not appear to be related to the Permian extinction; the other dynamics would have been quite sufficient. The Permian extinction was the greatest catastrophe that Earth’s life experienced since the previous supercontinent existed in the .

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