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speech acts an essay in the philosophy of language wikipedia inside.
Austin didn’t think that the investigation of language was morethan a preliminary to theorising, either in philosophy or science. Hewasn’t averse to theory construction, even if its outcome werepotentially revisionary (see e.g., 1957: 189). His concern was onlythat such theorising should be properly grounded, and that it shouldnot be driven, for example, by an initial failure to keep track ofdistinctions that we mark in our ordinary use of language.
Austin, J. L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Austin's original statement of speech-act theory which has been influential in both areas of linguistics and philosophy.
Philosophical importance of speech act theory
It is not the business ofthe philosophy of language to determine whether or not there are such propertiesas goodness or rightness and whether or not the goodness of loyalty andthe rightness of abortion are matters of fact.
Suppose, for example, that someone uttered “France ishexagonal” out of the blue, without making manifest any intentsand purposes. In that case, there would be nothing to go on, inseeking to establish whether the utterance was true or false, otherthan the words used, given their meanings. But those words might havebeen used to make a variety of statements, statements whose truth orfalsehood depends on the facts in a variety of ways. Hence, unless weare willing to allow that the utterance is both true and false, weshould withhold that mode of assessment: although such an utterancewould involve a perfectly meaningful sentence, it would failto be either true or false. Austin thought that our uses of words arealways liable to that sort of failure, especially when we are doingphilosophy. When used in cases that are out of the ordinary, or in theabsence of the background required to sustain the statement of truthsor falsehoods, words might—in that sense—fail us.
Philosophical importance of speech act theory
Ordinary challenges to judgments or claims, including claims to know,are sometimes invitations to detail our credentials—ourpossession of appropriate acumen in making judgments of the type inquestion. Sometimes, however, they are invitations to detail ourfacts—the features of the circumstance that figure inour judging in the way that we do. For example, we might claim to knowthat that presented thing is a goldfinch “by the shape of itshead”. If we were to detail our facts in that sort of way, thenwe might be open to further challenge: someone might claim thatthat’s not enough of a basis on which to judge that thepresented thing is a goldfinch. In addition to emphasizing the role ofspecial acumen in this type of case—not just anyone can tell agoldfinch by the shape of its head—Austin makes two importantclaims about such potential challenges to our facts. First, Austinclaims that, in order for such a challenge to be appropriate, thechallenger must have in mind some more or less definite lack, forexample by pointing out that birds other than goldfinches have headsof that shape. Second, Austin writes:
Dummett, M. 1986. 'Reply to Davidson'. In E. Lepore, ed., Truth & Interpretation: Perspectives on the Philosophy of Donald Davidson. Oxford: Blackwell.
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An Essay in the Philosophy of Language.
The complementary position, whichaffirms that it is precisely the communicative functions of intimationand arousal which are essential to language, was put forward by Anton Marty.Marty, too, exerted an important influence on Reinach and on his fellowMunich phenomenologists, and the challenging and original ideas put forwardby Marty in his philosophy of language anticipated also important elementsof current investigations of cognitive and linguistic universals.
An Essay inthe Philosophy of Language. Cambridge.
Katz. J. 2001. 'The End of Millianism: Multiple Bearers, Improper Names and Compositional Meaning'. The Journal of Philosophy 98: 137-168.
The Philosophy and Theory of Language of Anton Marty.
Frege, G. 'On Sense and Reference'. Reprinted in A. W. Moore, ed., Meaning & Reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993; and in Peter Geach and Max Black, eds., Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege. 3rd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1980; and in M. Beaney, ed., The Frege Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.
Linguistic meanings are the contents of language-usingacts taken .
Evans, G. 1973. 'The Causal Theory of Proper Names'. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 47: 187-208. Reprinted in Collected Papers. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985; and in A. W. Moore, ed., Meaning & Reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993; and in A. P. Martinich, ed., The Philosophy of Language. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Philosophy of language - Wikipedia
Taylor, B. 1980. 'Truth Theory for Indexical Languages'. In M. Platts, ed., Reference, Truth & Reality: Essays on the Philosophy of Language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Gottlob Frege: Language - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
It iscommon, for example, for philosophers to describe expressions like 'thecar', 'Robert Jones' and 'they' as having different references in differentcontexts, but it is arguable that this is merely a misleading way of sayingthat speakers use such expressions to refer to different things in differentcontexts.
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